Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?


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The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip.

On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at:
Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts"
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0657-z

#darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime

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Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
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Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

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When Will You Go to Space? ft. Richard Branson


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The private space-race has been on for a while now. The attention has been on Space-X and Blue Origin with their reusable rockets. But there’s one private space program that’s been doing things a little differently. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic isn’t building rockets at all – it’s building spaceships. And I got to sit down and talk to him about it.

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Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx...

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Amid the loud rivalry of between Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, amid the extravagance of self-landing rockets and … other displays, Virgin Galactic achieved something no other private space company ever has – in 2014 it became the first to put an actual person in space on board its SpaceShipOne – turning its pilot into the world’s first private astronaut. And then, on February 22nd, the VSS Unity, reached space in a sub-orbital flight carrying the first-ever passenger-astronaut on a private spacecraft.



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Jonah
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سلطان الخليفي

The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines


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Bad ideas come and go in physics. But there’s one bit of nonsense that is perhaps more persistent than all others: the perpetual motion machine. No working perpetual motion machine has ever been experiment verified. All break the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, we classify based on WHICH law of thermodynamics they break. We have perpetual motion machines of the first kind - they violate energy conservation - they pump more energy out than they need to keep running. This includes most of the historical devices. Then there are machines of the second kind - they’re a bit more subtle in their wrongness because break the second law of thermodynamics - extracting energy by reversing entropy. Many modern “free-energy” devices fall into this category. Now the best modern designs are by you - answers to our recent challenge question, which we’ll get to at the end. But first let’s take a look at examples of what other people came up with - this’ll be a fun little journey through some pretty terrible science.

Challenge Winners Please Email pbsspacetime@gmail.com, with your choice of product from the Merch Store (https://pbsspacetime.com/ )

Connor Grey
Creepy Magician
Alex Taylor
Adrien Romeo
Epsilon Centauri
Enoae Andrei


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Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
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Designing a perpetual motion machine has a very long history and became quite the craze from the middle ages through the renaissance. The first well-documented design for a perpetual motion machine was from the 12th century. Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned. Other types of over-balance wheels followed through to the Renaissance and worked on the same principle. There were also designs that employed the magical-seeming lodestones – magnets. For example, this ramp in which a ball is pulled to the top by a magnet before falling through a hole and rolling to the bottom again. Then there are the self-pumping waterwheels or self-blowing windmills.


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Ratfeast
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سلطان الخليفي

Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background


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Hook up an old antenna to your TV and scan between channels. The static buzz you hear is mostly due to the ambient radio produced by our noisy pre-galactic civilization. But around one percent of that buzz is something very different – it’s the cosmic microwave background radiation – the remnant of the heat-glow released when the hot, dense early universe became transparent for the first time. It sound likes random static, but that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information. It holds the secrets of the universe’s fiery beginning,

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It’s not surprising that scientists have spent half a century and built multiple satellites to unlock the mysteries of the cosmic microwave background. We’ve delved into its nature before – from its formation 380,000 years after the Big Bang, to its 1964 discovery by Penzias and Wilson with the Holmdel Horn Antenna, to its increasingly accurate mapping across the sky with ever-better satellites. It all culminated in this – the Planck satellite’s map of the CMB.


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Vinnie Falco

Hypernova:
chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

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JJ Bagnell
John Webber
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Jonah
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Nicholas Rose
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Richard Broman
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سلطان الخليفي

Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time


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With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Invisible to the naked eye, our night sky is scattered with the 100s of billions of galaxies the fill the known universe. Like the stars, these galaxies form constellations – hidden patterns that echo the reverberations of matter and light in an epoch long before galaxies ever formed. These are the baryon acoustic oscillations, and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy.

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Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

The field of cosmology – the study of the universe on its largest scales – was once the least precise in all of astrophysics. The impossibly vast distances made accurate measurements near impossible. But as our telescopes and our techniques improved over the past few decades, things are now different. We live in the era of precision cosmology, in which we know to stunning detail the properties that govern the very birth, evolution, and end of our universe. We talked about one of those properties in a recent episode – the Hubble constant – and about a growing conflict in its measured value which hints at strange new physics. Today we’ll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: the baryon acoustic oscillations. They the fossils of the first sound waves in the universe, imprinted in the distribution of galaxies on the sky. And in these patterns we can read the expansion history of the universe.

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Vinnie Falco

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chuck zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O'Connor

Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

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Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?


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With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question

Challenge question: if 1kg of apples is $5 and 2kg is $10, how much is -1kg of apples? The answer? Priceless. Because you could use negative-mass apples to build warp drives, travel in time, and construct a perpetual motion machine. In fact that last one will be today’s actual challenge question.

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Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

Exotic matter – matter with negative mass - has long been the pipedream of science fiction writers, futurists, and certain rather. . . optimistic researchers. It’s the key to faster than light travel because it’s the only stuff that can curve space in the right way to hold open wormholes and construct warp fields. And if you can travel faster than light you can also travel backwards in time. We’ve been over those already. And we also recently covered a very new use for negative mass: as “dark fluid”, a proposed explanation for both dark matter and dark energy. That episode really got me thinking about the subtleties of negative mass and how it should really behave gravitationally. Turns out it’s complicated, and to answer it we really have to question the very definition of mass.



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Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
kkm
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

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Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Ratfeast
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tim Crookham
Tim Stephani
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

The Crisis in Cosmology


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The search for a single number: the hubble constant, which is the rate of expansion of our universe, has consumed astronomers for generations. Finally, two powerful and independent methods have refined its measurement to unprecedented precision. The only problem is that they don’t agree. This calls into question some of our most basic assumptions about the universe.

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Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the universe. He gave us our first incontrovertible proof that there are galaxies outside the Milky Way by measuring the distances to the spiral nebulae. They were many millions of light years from us –far outside the Milky Way and so must be galaxies in their own right. Combined with the Doppler-shift velocity measurements of Vesto Slipher, Hubble revealed that the galaxies are not only receding from us, but they are receding at a rate proportional to their distance.

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Big Bang


Anton Lifshits
CoolAsCats
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Justin Lloyd
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Quasar


Dean Fuqua
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
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Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe


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The foundations of quantum theory rests on its symmetries. For example, it should be impossible to distinguish our universe from one that is that is the perfect mirror opposite in charge, handedness, and the direction of time. But one by one these symmetries were found to be broken, threatening to break all of physics along with them.

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Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang

In his famous lectures on physics, Richard Feynman talks about what it means to expect the universe to be identical in the mirror. For it to be parity-symmetric. He invites us to imagine a clock in a mirror reflection – numbers are backwards, components are all flipped left to right, and it ticks counterclockwise. And then we imagine building that mirror clock in reality. Everything is constructed as though reflected. Numbers get painted backwards. Every screw with right-handed thread or right-spiraling coil is replaced with a left-handed version. Our intuition tells us that the mirror clock should tick in exactly the same way, except counter-clockwise. Our intuition would be wrong.

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Big Bang


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Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

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Antonio Ruiz
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Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
John Webber
Jon Folks
Jonah
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Mark Vasile
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
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Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?


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Astronomers are the worst at naming things. Dark energy AND dark matter? Who can remember which is which. But perhaps one astronomer has just fixed it, with a theory that says perhaps actually they are they same stuff.

Space Time Journal Club digs into "A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter" by J. Farnes, 2018
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962

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Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong
https://youtu.be/IhpGdumLRqs

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang

Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)


Jamie Farnes, astrophysicist at Oxford just published a paper suggesting that both dark energy and dark matter may result from the same phenomenon. And it’s pretty wild: negative mass particles continuously popping into existence between the galaxies. This rather extravagant claim resulted in a hysterical response from the media. Our viewers’ perfect blend of bright-eyed curiosity and cynical skepticism led to many MANY requests for us to do an episode on this new result. You got it. Today on Space Time Journal Club, let’s pick apart J.S. Farnes 2018, “A unifying theory of dark energy and dark matter: Negative masses and matter creation within a modified Lambda-CDM framework”.


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Big Bang

David Nicklas
CoolAsCats
Anton Lifshits
Fabrice Eap
Juan Benet

Quasar


Dean Fuqua
James Flowers
Mark Rosenthal
Tambe Barsbay
Vinnie Falco

Hypernova

Chuck Zegar
Danton Spivey
Donal Botkin
Edmund Fokschaner
Jens Theisen
John Hofmann
Jordan Young
Joseph Salomone
Mark Heising
Matthew O’Connor


Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

Alexey Eromenko
Antonio Ruiz
Bradley Jenkins
Brandon Labonte
Carlo Mogavero
Daniel Lyons
David Crane
David Schmidt
Dustan Jones
Geoffrey Short
Greg Weiss
Jack Frosch
James Hughes
James Quintero
Jinal Doshi
JJ Bagnell
Jon Folks
Joseph Emison
Josh Thomas
Kenneth F Leonard
Kevin Warne
Kyle Hofer
Malte Ubl
Nathan Hitchings
Nicholas Rose
Nick Virtue
Richard Broman
Sammy J
Scott Gossett
Shannan Catalano
Shawn Azman
Sigurd Ruud Frivik
Tommy Mogensen
سلطان الخليفي

Why String Theory is Wrong


http://Brilliant.org/SpaceTime

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There’s this idea that beauty is a powerful guide to truth in the mathematics of physical theory. String theory is certainly beautiful in the eyes of many physicists. Beautiful enough to pursue even if it’s wrong?

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Previous Episode: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyTqgnKD3sw& ;amp;t=5s

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow

Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)

Hermann Weyl once said, “If I have to choose between beauty and truth, I choose beauty.” It was in reaction to a rebuke by Einstein. Weyl had tried to explain electromagnetism by imposing on Einstein’s general theory of relativity very first gauge symmetry, Weyl invariance. Einstein pointed out it the proposal led to some absurd results, and so the idea went down in flames. It just couldn’t be true, despite the elegance of the math. But sometimes it can be hard to let go of the sense that a beautiful theory must be right. Could this also be the case with string theory?

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سلطان الخليفي

Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe


http://Brilliant.org/SpaceTime

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When you look in mirror, and see what you think is a perfect reflection. You might be looking at universe whose laws are fundamentally different.

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Previous Episode:
Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REl20rlZGTw

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow

Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)

When we think about symmetry, the first thing that comes to mind is mirror symmetry. Butterflies, Rorschach tests, and classically attractive faces all look the same when flipped left-to-right. In physics, a symmetry is when the laws of physics are unchanged due to some transformation of coordinates. We’ve seen examples where it is - the universe is symmetric to coordinate shifts in space, time, and even the rather abstract phase of the wave function. So it might be surprising to learn that with all the weird ways in which the universe IS symmetric, it’s NOT entirely symmetric under this most intuitive one. The laws of physics work differently in the universe of the mirror.


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سلطان الخليفي

Did Life on Earth Come from Space?


https://pbsspacetime.com/

How did life on Earth get started? Did life on Earth originate on another planet? Either Mars, or in a distant solar system? Could Earth life have spread to have seeded life elsewhere? Let’s see what modern science has to say about the plausibility of panspermia.

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Previous Episode:
'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wICOlaQOpM0& ;amp;t=455s

Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Luke Maroldi
Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow

Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)

Life existing on Earth is odd. The oldest fossils are now dated to only a few hundred million years after the moment Earth first became habitable. Is it really reasonable to imagine that evolution turned an unliving chemical soup into the first true living cells in that geological eye-blink? Well, maybe. But the discovery of the early appearance of life on Earth was definitely a big “huh, that’s weird” moment. And it’s inspired some creative thinking. For example, what if the first genesis of life – abiogenesis – is actually incredibly unlikely – so unlikely that it only happened once in the entire galaxy. And that “once” was not on Earth. What if primitive life arrived on Earth after having traveled vast distances across the Milky Way. Some scientists think this is the case. This is the Panspermia hypothesis.


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سلطان الخليفي