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How a Century-Old Procedure Could Help Us Fight COVID-19


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https://www.pnas.org/content/117/17/9490

Image Sources:
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The Little Lobster That Reveals Climate


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Pelagic red crabs are actually lobsters - and that’s not even the weirdest thing about them! They sometimes wash up on shore in droves, signaling large scale climate events like El Niños and serving as a warning to marine biologists of our changing climate.

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How to Make a COVID-19 Vaccine


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https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-clinical-trial-for-covid-19-treatments

Images:
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https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/rendering-3d-vaccine-medicine-bottle-flu-vaccine-anti-vaccination-and-covid-19-gm1210736764-350863592
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https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/t-cells-gm956478348-261157331
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/vaccination-gm695611488-128719257
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/scientist-carefully-carrying-matured-cell-to-another-plate-conducting-research-gm879831370-245197680
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/yeast-infection-gm1198902110-342809065
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/vaccine-and-syringe-injection-it-use-for-prevention-immunization-and-treatment-from-gm1215061073-353763946
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/small-experimental-mouse-is-on-the-researchers-hand-gm940800024-257163311
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/syrian-hamster-gm1211196842-351159216
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/the-rhesus-macaque-monkey-gm1002057750-270805330
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/two-ferrets-looking-out-of-their-wooden-house-gm1045340234-279738559
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/doctors-home-visiting-during-the-quarantine-gm1216946088-355032280
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :14234CDC_Flumist.tif
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/new-york-streets-high-buildings-and-crowd-walking-gm1156527160-315232323
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/calendar-closeup-gm975732646-265390954
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/close-up-photo-beautiful-amazed-she-her-dark-skin-lady-arms-hands-chin-think-over-gm1132753451-300423456
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/doctor-preparing-the-coronavirus-covid-19-vaccine-gm1214508941-353388287?clarity=false

The Plant That Grows Perches for Birds


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https://bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3732/ajb.1100295
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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/plb.12474

Fighting COVID-19 With... Llamas?!


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https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau1288

5 Inventions Showing Us the Future of Solar Energy


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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-47803-3
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Why Killer Whales Migrate (It's Not Why You Think)


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Sources:
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/scientists-say-they-ve-cracked-mystery-why-whales-migrate-and-it-s-all-about-healthy #
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From Showers to Sleep: Science Hacks for Your Everyday Life


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Will COVID-19 Go Away in the Summer?


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COVID-19 has the potential to ebb and flow with the seasons, but because it's a novel pandemic, that doesn't mean we're off the hook this summer.

While this episode was in production, an additional report was published in Science supporting the conclusion that too many people are susceptible to the virus for warm weather to make much of a dent: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/05/15/science.abc2535

SciShow's COVID-19 Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsNB4peY6C6IQediwz2GzMTNvm_dMzr47

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022467v1.full.pdf
https://ccdd.hsph.harvard.edu/will-covid-19-go-away-on-its-own-in-warmer-weather/
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/basics/faq.html
https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/173/2/127/99316
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3457514/
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20042261.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097773/
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200407164949.htm
https://www.biospace.com/article/coronavirus-covid-19-could-be-seasonal/
https://smw.ch/article/doi/smw.2020.20224
https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=260116123082074081079118067114068089014010017032055005018069005097031071101008088124103017054013044015041123089069030074103082011074041011058083009118068117014011067034060071110115126021065087008080123112000124126064091069077004007003004107000121122127& ;amp;EXT=pdf
https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/us/
https://web.stanford.edu/ ~jhj1/teachingdocs/Jones-on-R0.pdf

Images:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/piggy-bank-resting-and-drink-cocktail-on-the-beach-summer-holiday-concept-3d-render-gm1132987317-300571055
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/collage-of-group-of-young-people-woman-and-men-over-isolated-background-feeling-gm1124494423-295148296
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/collage-of-group-of-young-people-woman-and-men-over-white-solated-background-feeling-gm1124499244-295148971
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/cold-home-with-an-angry-couple-gm862251050-142891407
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/fog-and-snow-gm1175727422-327517440
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/icon-set-related-to-coronavirus-gm1215675224-354163608
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/singapore-landscape-and-city-gm1160135322-317461457
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/pathogenic-viruses-causing-infection-in-host-organism-viral-disease-outbreak-3d-gm1208691882-349467594
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-boy-getting-a-vaccine-gm1094358578-293707472
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/western-cowboy-and-horse-riding-elements-gm517994305-49400360

How Sea Butterflies "Fly" in Water


SciShow

http://pbs.org/spyinthewild ) to follow more than 50 animatronic spy creatures as they go undercover in the animal world. And check out their YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/user/NaturePBS ) for more great videos of the natural world.

Birds fly, and fish swim. We learn this when we are children. But not everything in nature is quite so simple… Meet Limacina helicina, an artic-dwelling sea butterfly that flies through the water.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
https://jeb.biologists.org/content/219/4/535
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00397570
https://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/77/m077p125.pdf

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Limacina_helicina_2_color.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Limacina_helicina.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :LimacinaHelicinaNOAA.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Limacina_antarctica.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Limacina_helicina_3.png
https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05arctic/background/biodiversity/media/limacina_helicina.html
https://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/mmg_disp.jsp?med_id=62709& ;amp;from=search_list
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/featured-images/ocean-acidity-dissolving-tiny-snails %E2%80%99-protective-shell
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Toky.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Reynolds_behaviors.png
https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/17968453060/
http://movie.biologists.com/video/10.1242/jeb.129205/video-1
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Marinesnow-splash.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Limacina_helicina_4.png
https://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/suppl/2016/02/11/219.4.535.DC1/JEB129205supp.pdf
www.murphyfluidslab.com

Hydrogen: The Savior of the Shipping Industry


SciShow

https://gatesnot.es/3dkhdhH. Thanks to Bill Gates and Breakthrough Energy for supporting this episode of SciShow.

Huge container ships relying on fossil fuels transport all kinds of goods across the ocean, creating a huge climate change impact. But there's a better way to power this transport using, of all things, water.

Hosted by: Hank Green

SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It's called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at http://www.scishowtangents.org
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever:

Kevin Bealer, Jacob, Katie Marie Magnone, D.A.Noe, Charles Southerland, Eric Jensen, Christopher R Boucher, Alex Hackman, Matt Curls, Adam Brainard, Scott Satovsky Jr, Sam Buck, Ron Kakar, Chris Peters, Kevin Carpentier, Patrick D. Ashmore, Piya Shedden, Sam Lutfi, charles george, Greg

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----------
Sources:
https://energy.sandia.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/SAND2017-12665.pdf
http://butane.chem.uiuc.edu/pshapley/Environmental/L11/2.html
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128050521000309?via %3Dihub
https://www.npr.org/2019/07/16/716693006/the-dawn-of-low-carbon-shipping
https://www.npr.org/2019/07/15/736565697/giant-shipper-bets-big-on-ending-its-carbon-emissions-will-it-pay-off
https://www.rivieramm.com/news-content-hub/news-content-hub/hydrogen-fuel-cells-becoming-viable-in-maritime-sector-56714
Secondary:
https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/how-hydrogen-made
https://www.truckinginfo.com/339798/will-future-trucks-be-powered-by-batteries-of-fuel-cells
https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeremybogaisky/2019/08/14/zeroavia-alakai-hydrogen-fuel-cell/ #4543983818aa
https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/14/20804257/zeroavia-hydrogen-airplane-electric-flight

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File :Residual_fuel_oil.JPG

We Can't Live Without You | Synanthropic Animals


SciShow

http://www.scishowtangents.org
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Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever:

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----------
Sources:

https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12125
Common house spiders
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-017-1440-1
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/spiders/common_house_spider.htm
https://www.burkemuseum.org/collections-and-research/biology/arachnology-and-entomology/spider-myths/myth-spiders-come-indoors
Purple martins
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194285
https://doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_18_37
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1531-9_3
https://portal.ct.gov/DEEP/Wildlife/Fact-Sheets/Purple-Martin
Northern dung beetles
https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.03458
https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12321
https://theconversation.com/five-things-dung-beetles-do-with-a-piece-of-poo-47367
Granary weevils
https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2010.001
https://doi.org/10.3721/037.006.m901
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485316000687
https://doi.org/10.1179/1749631413Y.0000000011
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1528-8
https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/rice-and-granary-weevils
Webbing clothes moths
https://doi.org/10.4081/jear.2011.83
https://doi.org/10.4081/jear.2011.129
https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef609
Anopheles albitarsis mosquitoes
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101993000500001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712879

Meet the Jellybots: Ocean-Exploring Biohybrid Robots


SciShow

http://www.scishowtangents.org
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Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever:

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----------
Sources:
https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz3194
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26096459
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0722-1_19
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2011.11.022
https://doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.aar7650
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.03.057
https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.235
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-01/ciot-bjs012220.php
--------
Images:
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/vintage-thin-line-fish-label-gm510780852-86381397
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/authentic-shot-of-a-jellyfish-free-swimming-in-crystal-clear-water-aquarium-sszsz2launjtvl72p9
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/aurelia-moon-jelly-gm1127511597-297191209
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/blooms-of-white-jellyfish-named-aurelia-xkhoj8o
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/4k-footage-colorful-jellyfish-floating-underwater-hxygd7uriu32svvs
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/fingers-gently-move-sticks-on-remote-controller-to-control-drone-flight-black-smart-tablet-with-chromakey-on-screen-mounted-on-holder-10-february-2017-in-spain-smwqeyutlizbd7otw
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/clear-jellyfish-swimming-upwards-vs6kn8d
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfws_pacificsw/43092372114/in/photostream/
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/monterey-bay-aquarium-ocean-jellies-moon-jellyfish-stk-h7gqxjmqx4ic2
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/remotely-operated-underwater-vehicle-isolated-on-white-gm509918870-86031603
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/sea-turtle-leatherback-cartoon-vector-illustration-gm675172616-123858433

There Probably Aren't Different Strains of SARS-CoV-2 (Yet)


SciShow

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Hosted by: Hank Green

SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It's called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at http://www.scishowtangents.org
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever:

Kevin Bealer, Jacob, Katie Marie Magnone, D.A. Noe, Charles Southerland, Eric Jensen, Christopher R Boucher, Alex Hackman, Matt Curls, Adam Brainard, Scott Satovsky Jr, Sam Buck, Ron Kakar, Chris Peters, Kevin Carpentier, Patrick D. Ashmore, Piya Shedden, Sam Lutfi, Charles George, Christoph Schwanke, Greg

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----------
Sources:

https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/vaccine-selection.htm
https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/05/coronavirus-strains-transmissible/611239/
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/science/coronavirus-mutations.html
https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2020/04/why-covid-19-mild-some-deadly-others
https://www.neb.com/products/pcr-qpcr-and-amplification-technologies/pcr-qpcr-and-amplification-technologies/dna-polymerase-proofreading
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174922/
https://bedford.io/blog/ncov-cryptic-transmission/
https://www.livescience.com/coronavirus-mutation-rate.html
https://theconversation.com/the-coronavirus-looks-less-deadly-than-first-reported-but-its-definitely-not-just-a-flu-133526
https://mra.asm.org/content/9/11/e00169-20
https://www.popsci.com/story/health/covid-19-coronavirus-mutates-changes/
https://nextstrain.org/ncov/global
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmv.25902
https://academic.oup.com/nsr/advance-article/doi/10.1093/nsr/nwaa036/5775463
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6918e2.htm?s_cid %3Dmm6918e2_w
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.20056929v2
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/jmv.25902
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180377/
https://chemrxiv.org/articles/Targeting_SARS-CoV-2_Spike_Protein_of_COVID-19_with_Naturally_Occurring_Phytochemicals_An_in_Silco_Study_for_Drug_Development/12094203/1
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.29.069054v1
https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id %3D10.1371/journal.pbio.3000003
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0690-4 %23article-info
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/07/us/new-york-city-coronavirus-outbreak.html

What Will the World Look Like, 2°C Warmer?


SciShow

http://www.scishowtangents.org
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Sources:
https://www.pnas.org/content/115/33/8252
https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2865/a-degree-of-concern-why-global-temperatures-matter/
https://interactive.carbonbrief.org/impacts-climate-change-one-point-five-degrees-two-degrees/?utm_source=web& ;amp;utm_campaign=Redirect
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/10/07/climate/ipcc-report-half-degree.html
https://www.earth-syst-dynam.net/7/327/2016/esd-7-327-2016.pdf
https://www.scienceworld.ca/stories/why-are-vancouver-winters-so-wet/
https://www.olympic.org/vancouver-2010
http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/OverviewofMetroVancouversMethodsinProjectingRegionalGrowth.pdf

Ice:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228640064_Acceleration_of_the_Contribution_of_the_Greenland_and_Antarctic_Ice_Sheets_to_Sea_Level_Rise
https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/sotc/glacier_balance.html
https://www.usgs.gov/centers/norock/science/retreat-glaciers-glacier-national-park?qt-science_center_objects=0 #qt-science_center_objects
https://www.nbcnews.com/science/environment/dramatic-swiss-glacier-retreat-captured-old-photos-n1091091
https://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2016/02/10/how-stable-is-the-west-antarctic-ice-sheet/
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0124-y
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-sea-level

Ocean circulation and rainfall:
https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/related_files/td0802.pdf
https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2013GL058454

Images:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11056
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4168
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/details.php?id=PIA01844
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :Sundarbans.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File :OCP07_Fig-6.jpg